The shape of the worldwide famous Vespa obtains protection in Italy under copyright law

Piaggio, the Italian company producer of the world wide famous Vespa scooter, was recently sued by the Chinese company Zhejiang Zhongneng Industry Group (“ZZIG”) in a quite complex case.

ZZIG offered for sale three scooters named “Revival”, protected by a Community design registration no. 001783655-0002, “Cityzen” and “Ves”, the shape of which was not covered by any registered IP right in Italy or in the European Union.

Capture ZZIG

As to Piaggio, the company owns the Italian 3D trademark no.1556520 claiming priority of the Community trademark no. 011686482, filed on 7 August 2013 and registered on 29 August 2013.

Capture Vespa

When Piaggio obtained the seizure of the three above motorbike models in the context of a Fair held in Milan, the Chinese company started an ordinary proceeding on the merits before the Court of Turin against Piaggio, seeking the declaration of non-infringement of Piaggio Vespa 3D trademark by its “Revival”, “Cityzen” and “Ves” scooters. Besides, it asked a declaration of invalidity of Piaggio’s Vespa trademark, based on the fact that it was anticipated by their design and thus not novel. Also, it held that the 3D trademark was void, as it does not respect the absolute ground for refusal established by the law.

Piaggio resisted and asked the Court of Turin to reject the above claims, declare that the Vespa shape is protected under copyright law, trademark law and unfair competition law and that those rights were infringed by ZIGG three models of scooters. As a matter of fact, Vespa was offered for sale by Piaggio since 1945.

First of all, the Court of Turin declared that the Vespa trademark does not lack of novelty, as it reflects a model of Vespa marketed since 2005, before the commercialization of ZZIG first scooter, i.e. “Cityzen”. Moreover, the Court of Turin excluded the existence of any absolute ground for refusal, stating that its shape was not technical nor standard and not even substantial as the reason why consumers chose the Vespa were not merely aesthetical. Based on these findings, the Court finally affirmed that only the “Ves” scooter constitute an infringement of Piaggio trademark.

This  said, the Court of Turin further held that the Vespa shape is eligible for protection under copyright law, as it is since long time worldwide recognized as an icon of Italian design and style, shown in advertising and movies, presented plenty of times at museum and exhibitions and part of many books, articles, magazines and publications. All considered, safe and sound evidence show that the shape of Vespa is unequivocally believed to be an artistic piece of designs by the main communities of experts worldwide. Nevertheless, the Court held that, again, only Ves scooter infringed Piaggio rights vested on its scooter as it presents features similar to the ones protected both under the Vespa trademark and copyright.

The decision (full text here) is indeed interesting as it critically examines the similarities and differences between the “original” good and the ones that are claimed to be infringing products and, while asserting the eligibility for protection of the Vespa shape both under trademark and copyright law, it excludes infringement for two products through a detailed and careful examination. This narrow approach is indeed interesting because it affirms the principle that the infringement of designs protected under copyright law shall be evaluated with an analytical examination similar to those applied in cases of trademark infringement.

A doubt might remain about the overlapping of trademark and copyright protection. Since the former never expires as long as the product is on the market (plus the subsequent five years, according to Italian law), one might ask what advantage for the right holder might subsist by ‘adding’ a protection limited in time, such as copyright’s. The answer might be: the dual protection functions as a ‘parachute’ for the case that one of the two, in a subsequent Judgement (Appeal or High Court: Cassazione in Italy) should be successfully challenged by a competitor.

Maria Luigia Franceschelli

Court of Turin, case No. 13811/2014, 6 April 2017, Zhejiang Zhongneng Industry Group, Taizhou Zhongneng Import And Export Co. vs Piaggio & c. S.p.a..

Design’s artistic value: no univocal definition according to the Italian Supreme Court

With the decision at stake (dated November 13, 2015, full decision here) on the possible copyright protection of an out-door seat, the Supreme Court interestingly expressed a subtle (but crucial) critic on the current approach adopted by some Italian decisions that seem to ‘generously’ recognize the existence of artistic value for design objects, leaning on apparently weak – or lonely – evidence. This appears to be, for example, the case of the recent decision of the Supreme Court affirming that Moon Boots were artistic, as allegedly proved by the fact that the boots were exposed in an exhibition of industrial design works at the Louvre Museum (see full decision here).

A more severe approach seems to be adopted by the decision in comment, concerning the design of a line of outdoor seats called “Libre”, created by the plaintiff and claimed to be eligible for protection under copyright law. The Court of first instance and the Court of Appeal of Venice excluded the existence of an artistic value and thus excluded any copyright infringement by a line of similar outdoors seat created by a competitor. So, the plaintiff asked the Supreme Court to interpret such notion.

Capture Libre

The Italian Supreme Court, after having made a useful recognition of the current trends adopted by Italian Courts in the interpretation of such requirement, affirmed that the concept of artistic value cannot be confined in one, unique and exhaustive definition. The cases being too various, it is more useful defining a number of parameters that Judges can apply on a case-by-case basis, considering in depth the concrete facts occurred. Those parameters, continues the Court, have both subjective and objective aspects.

As to the former, they consist in the capability of the object to stir aesthetic emotions, in the greater creativity or originality of the shape – compared the others normally found in similar products on the market – transcending the practical functionality of the good: aesthetic have its own independent and distinct relevance. These emotions, admits the Supreme Court, are inevitably subject to the personal experience, culture, feeling and taste of the individual doing the evaluation. The result of the assessment on the existence of artistic value may thus change depending on who looks at the piece of design. So, it is necessary to indicate more objective parameters.

It is therefore to be considered the recognition that the piece of design has received within the cultural and institutional circles with respect to its artistic and aesthetic features. This witnesses that the aesthetic appearance is considered capable of giving to the object a value and a meaning independent from its strict functionality. In concrete, this is shown by the presence of the object at museum or exhibitions, mentions in specialized newspapers and journals (not having a commercial scope), the critics, awards, prices and similar. On top of that, crucial appears the circumstance that the object has gained an autonomous value on the market of pieces of art, parallel to the commercial one or, more commonly, that it has reached a high economic value showing that the public appreciates and recognizes (and is ready to pay) its artistic merits. All the above elements are inevitably influenced by time: if a product is new it would have had no time to receive such prices, honors and awards from third parties. Even this parameter shall thus not be considered as absolute, but still connected to a case by case analysis.

With the above, wide and flexible interpretation of the concept of artistic value, the Supreme Court appears to distance itself from a jurisprudence that focused the existence of  even just one of the above circumstances.  In particular, it seems to downplay the current trend, more and more popular in the merit Courts,  whereby the presence of the piece of design in museums and exhibitions constitutes per se a sufficient evidence of the artistic merits of an object. The decision in comment seems to ask the lower Courts to be more selective and in ascertaining the existence of an artistic merit in the design object. And to do this on a case-by-case analysis, excluding any “a priori” single-criterion-based assessment.

By this decision the Supreme Court gives objectively rules in favor of small or new designers and firms, whose products could achieve protection on the basis of a concrete analysis of the single object’s potentialities, independently from its long-lasting presence on the market, huge marketing efforts, or the capability to  exhibit  the object in a museum. The current approach, criticized by the Supreme Court, seems indeed to privilege ( moreover, in an era of crisis) companies that are already solidly established and powerful on the market. This decision is good news for competition.

Maria Luigia Franceschelli

Italian Supreme Court, case No. 23292/2015, 13 November 2015, Metalco S.p.A. vs City Design S.r.l. and City Design S.p.A..

Industrial Design works: exhibition in museums as proof of special artistic merit?

A recent decision issued by the Tribunal of Milan (full-text in Italian available here), Specialized IP Section, has acknowledged special artistic merit, hence copyright protection (under Art. 2.10  of Italian Copyright Act implementing Art 17 of EU Directive 71/98) to after-sky boots, branded Moon Boots (as designed after the US astronauts’ boots ), a popular model marketed (also) in Italy since more than 40 years.

nasa
Aldrin’s boot and footprint in lunar soil – credit: Nasa

(As known, in some countries like Germany and Italy, copyright protection of industrial design products requires a plus of artistic merit than the mere ‘individual character’ requested by the general copyright paradigm).

 

The trump card for this recognition was the Louvre Museum’s choice of Moon Boots as one of the 100 most representative industrial design works of the XX century. The readers will think, and with reason, that this position is not novel, either in Italy or in other countries (Germany,i.a.). And with reason: as a matter of fact, Milan’s Tribunal just follows the blueprint of Flos.

So, it is not for its peculiarities that we are recalling the Moon Boots decision. Rather, it is an occasion for some critical comments on the general position – general:  aside from the specific case – espoused by the Milan Court.

First: is the selection/exposition by even prestigious museums a per se decisive argument for assessing special artistic value? More precisely: is it so without inquiring whether the exhibition was the Museum’s choice an autonomous initiative, or was it sponsored by the producers of the industrial design products? We all know how quite often, nowadays, public and private museums and art galleries, as well as the press, generalist and specialized, specialized struggle for balancing their budgets. And how a skillfully set up ‘environment’ can frame prestige and ‘cultural’ aura for the presentation of even everyday household appliances. And we know, of course, how  intense is the ‘race’ by industrial design producers to obtain that prestigious upgrading, which translates in a potentially over 100 years rent-seeking position.

So, at least Courts should adopt the testsponsored or autonomous’?

One might add that an even more significant test could be adopted. By checking whether this or that industrial product, of which the producer/plaintiff claims special artistic value, has ever been auctioned at art sales by famed houses as Christie’s, Sotheby’s and the like. Or, just by checking with same houses if they are prepared to auction such products as after-sky boots… (I am personally interested to this, I must confess: in my garage I have a couple of forgotten old used boots that I was going to throw away…).

Let’s now give a broader glance at the issue. First of all, its ‘competitive cost’. Is it reasonable, and consistent with the principle of freedom of competition, that utilitarian products sold since many years, even after the expiry of the 25 years design registration, and whose basic model has been currently adopted, after such expiry, by many competitors (usually SMEs ) — is it reasonable, then, that a sudden ‘copyright baptism’ makes them again object of exclusive rights? — possibly, repeat, for  more than a century ahead! I do not think so: however, the question of an ‘easy’ building of such rent/seeking positions is not worth neglecting. Also for an additional reason. Under Berne Conventions’ rule on derivative works (Art.2.3) the rightholders on the original design retain the faculty to inhibit the production and marketing of competing products bearing variants.

At least — at the very least— a more balanced regime should establish a suitable term for competitors, who entered the market after the expiry of the registration, to continue production and sales as not to waste the investments poured therefor. On the determination of such ‘transition’ period, it is well known, lobbies of big international furniture producers are actively at work, e.g. now in UK after the disgraceful repeal (itself lobby-driven), of Sec. 52 of Design Act by the Enterprise Act of 2013 .

Finally: let alone SMEs, do Courts worry about the cost for consumers, i.e. effect on price, of such… baptism? Not that I know.

Gustavo Ghidini

 

Court of Milan, IP Section, decision of 7 July 2016, No. 8628/2016

The pictures of notorious people may be used on commercial websites without their consent (or, at least, this is what the court of Bologna said)

In 1992, for the first time in more than 141 years of America’s Cup, an Italian boat was able to dispute the famous sailing race, so becoming famous all over the world as the first boat from a non-English speaking team to fight for the victory. Not only the most passionate sailors know that the boat was “Il Moro di Venezia”, Paul Cayard its skipper and that the sailing team was leaded by Raul Gardini.

This story was re-evoked in a proceeding for violation of image and personality rights started by Paul Cayard and the heirs of Raul Gardini before the Court of Bologna (full text here) to stop the unauthorized use of pictures, names and logos of Il Moro di Venezia and its protagonists on a commercial website (and related promotional Facebook pages) managed by a brand called “Il Moro di Venezia” that was unrelated to the sailing team of the famous boat.

According to the Court, however, the personality rights of an individual, that include the ways in which such individual is presented to the public, shall reflect the social perception that common people have of his/her personality and is not violated insofar as there is no misinterpretation of his/her intellectual ideological, ethic and professional heritage, as it emerges from his/her personal story as known.

Moreover, with particular reference to the names and images of Il Moro di Venezia and its team that were used on the website, the Court affirmed that the plaintiff had no right to stop their use on the basis that the contested elements were not used as trademarks and the link created with them on the resistants’ web pages was not abusive or detrimental of other rights.

The Court seems to recall the case law affirming that, besides misrepresentation, there is a further case when there could be violation of personality rights. Reference is made to the cases where the image and name of an individual are used in advertising in association with a brand, in so far as their use suggests a patronage to the brand which, instead, is lacking. A parallelism with trademark law could be found in the provisions inhibiting to deceive the public about the qualities of a sign and to create in the consumers’ mind an association between a notorious trademark and a product, thus taking an unfair advantage of said trademark.

This further case was, however, excluded by the Court of Bologna. It thus seems, by reading this decision, that anyone can make use of the names and images of third parties, also on a website aimed at promoting their commercial activity, when such person is depicted as the society expects him/her to be, suggesting a support of the related brand. This, even if a link between such person and the activity is created in the public in absence of any will from the depicted one or, as it was in the present case, with his/her express disapproval.

Many decision, on the contrary, affirmed that any individual has the right to control the uses of his/her name, image and any other aspect of his identity, even if the same were made available to the public with their previous consent, because the interested party could not approve their further use and, in particular, a commercial connection suggesting that he/she is connected to a brand (see Supreme Court decision of 6 December 2013, no. 27381; Court of Milan, decision of 21 May 2002 and Court of Rome, decision of 15 September 2007).

It’s a bit scary thinking about the consequence of the decision of the Court of Bologna that seems to be very permissive as to the possible uses of names and pictures of a person. It would be reasonable, we believe, extending the concept of distortive use as including the use on a commercial website that has not been approved by the person in question or, even worst, is expressively discouraged.

Court of Bologna, decision No. 2637/2015, 9 September 2015, Ivan Gardini, Eleonora Gardini, Maria Speranza Gardini and Paul Pierre Cayard v. Punta della Maestra S.r.l., Overseas Property LLC, Yacht Club Il Moro di Venezia and Rama S.n.c.

The Court of Rome reintroduces the notion of “active hosting provider”: new uncertainties on the ISP liability rules

By a decision published on 27 April 2016, the Court of Rome held TMFT Enterprises LLC- Break Media (“Break Media“) liable for copyright infringement for the unauthorized streaming of audiovisual content owned by Reti Televisive Italiane S.p.A. (“RTI“).

Break Media argued that it was a passive hosting provider because it merely stored information at the request of a recipient of its service. Pursuant to Article 14 of the E-Commerce Directive 2000/31/CE, as implemented in Italy by Legislative Decree 70/2003, hosting providers are not liable for stored information if they are unaware of its illegal nature. Moreover they are not required to remove illegal content unless ordered to do so by the competent public authorities.

Further, the provider outlined that the notice sent by RTI was generic, failing to report the location (URL) where the infringing content were placed. Therefore, it imposed no legal obligation to inform the competent authorities under Article 17 of the Directive and no liability for contributory copyright infringement could be found.

In addressing the hosting provider’s arguments, the Court of Rome found the website owner to be liable.

In line with the previous Italian case law (cf. Court of Rome, October 20 2011, VVBcom.Limited and Choopa LLC; Court of Milan May 19 2011, RTI v Yahoo! Italia and Court of Milano, January 20 2011, RTI v ItaliaOnline Srl) the Court of Rome applied the distinction between active and passive hosting providers, based on the analysis of the activities performed by the entity in question.

The decision held that if a hosting provider is directly involved in the website’s operations by allowing users to upload videos and other content, it is deemed to manage the information and content that its users provide. In this case, the ISP would be regarded as an active hosting provider, subject to a duty to remove illicit content if so requested by the rights’ holder.

On the contrary, if a hosting provider merely provides storage and connectivity to specific websites, and plays no active role in managing information online, it should be regarded as a passive hosting provider, which is not jointly liable with website owner for copyright infringement unless it fails to comply with a removal order issued by the competent administrative or judicial authorities or is aware of the illicit nature of the content on the hosted website and fail to alert the competent authorities.

According to the Court, Break Media was an “active hosting” of media content. Indeed, the activity of Break Media was not limited to the activation of technical procedures for enabling the content to be loaded to the platform (“passive hosting”), but provided a complex service of advertising exploitation of the content.

As a result, the liability exemptions established by Article 14 of the E-Commerce Directive were not applicable.

Although RTI’s notice demanding the removal of the infringing materials from the platform did not identify the specific location of the content to be removed, the defendant was effectively aware of the infringing nature of the content. This knolwedge was deemed enough in order to affirm the provider’s liability.

Based on the above, the Court condemned the provider to pay damages for € 115,000, approximately corresponding to € 1.300 for each minute of unauthorized publication.

Reintroducing principles affirmed by the aforementioned case law, the current decision distanced from the decision of the European Court of Justice on the SABAM case (24 November 2011 in Case C‑70/10, Scarlet Extended SA v. SABAM et al.) according to which national authorities are prohibited from adopting measures which would require an ISP to carry out general monitoring of the information that it transmits on its network.

Based on the SABAM jurisprudence, the Court of Appeal of Milan, January 7 2015, overturning the Court of Milan first instance decision in the case RTI v. Yahoo! Italia, took the view that the distinction between ‘active’ and ‘passive’ hosting providers should be regarded as misleading, being envisaged in neither the E-Commerce Directive nor in the Italian implementing Legislative Decree 70/2003. Consequently the fact that an ISP provides for services to organize contents published by its users should not change its role.

The issue provides matter of clarification for the Supreme Court.

For further comments look at the interesting analysis carried out by Maria Letizia Bixio on dimt.it

Jacopo Ciani

Court of Rome, 27 April 2016, Reti Televisive Italiane S.p.A. v. TMFT Enterprises LLC- Break Media

CJEU delivers its judgement in the Liffers case: there is no bar in the Enforcement Directive on claiming compensation for both moral and material damage

By its 17 March 2016 decision (here), the CJEU cleared the doubts raised by the Spanish Tribunal Supremo as to an IP holder’s right to be compensated, in accordance with Article 13(1) of the Enforcement Directive (Directive 2004/48), for both material damage on the basis of the hypothetical royalty criteria laid down by subparagraph 2, heading (a), of said article, and moral damage under heading (b) of the same subparagraph 2.

The Tribunal Supremo’s doubts arose from the wording of Article 13(1), whose subparagraphs 1 and 2 read as follows (emphasis and numbers added):

“[1] Member States shall ensure that the competent judicial authorities, on application of the injured party, order the infringer who knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to know, engaged in an infringing activity, to pay the rightholder damages appropriate to the actual prejudice suffered by him/her as a result of the infringement.

[2] When the judicial authorities set the damages:

(a) they shall take into account all appropriate aspects, such as the negative economic consequences, including lost profits, which the injured party has suffered, any unfair profits made by the infringer and, in appropriate cases, elements other than economic factors, such as the moral prejudice caused to the rightholder by the infringement;

or

(b) as an alternative to (a), they may, in appropriate cases, set the damages as a lump sum on the basis of elements such as at least the amount of royalties or fees which would have been due if the infringer had requested authorisation to use the intellectual property right in question”.

Indeed, the expressions “or and “as an alternative to (a)” contained in subparagraph 2 of Article 13(1) may well be read as dividing the criteria for setting damages provided by headings (a) and (b), in such a way that the two cannot be invoked together by IP holders (nor merged by the judicial authorities). The CJEU did not stop at a literal interpretation of Article 13(1), though, but looked at the article “in light of the objectives” pursued, in its view, by the Enforcement Directive.

From this perspective, the Court said that subparagraph 1 of Article 13(1) was aimed at ensuring full compensation for the “actual prejudice suffered” by right-holders, which means compensation for both material and moral prejudice (see paragraph 25 of the ECJ decision).

As the “hypothetical royalty” criterion provided by heading (b) of Article 13(1), subparagraph 2, does not take into account moral prejudice, each time an IP holder suffered moral prejudice in addition to material prejudice, application of this criterion alone would prevent full compensation being awarded. This outcome is inconsistent with the goal and the very rationale of said provision.

On these grounds the Court of Justice, upholding the opinion of Advocate General Whatelet (here), answered the preliminary questions raised by the Tribunal Supremo by stating that Article 13(1) must be interpreted as permitting a party injured by an IP infringement, who claims compensation for his material damage as calculated on the basis of the “hypothetical royalty”, to also claim compensation for the moral prejudice he/she has suffered.

It may be noted that, from a strictly Italian standpoint, the CJEU decision does not really add anything new, as the national provisions into which Article 13(1) of the Enforcement Directive has been transposed do not contain any reference to an alternative between compensation for moral prejudice and for material prejudice. Article 158(3) of Italian Copyright Law expressly states that moral damages can be recovered in addition to material damages calculated on the basis of the “hypothetical royalty” criterion. And, albeit less explicitly, but nevertheless clearly, Article 125 of the Italian IP Code, concerning IP rights other than copyright, does the same.

Riccardo Perotti

CJEU, 17 March 2016, C-99/15, Liffers

US 2nd Circuit holds that Google Books does not infringe copyright

Nearly two years after the US District Court for the Southern District of New York decision on the Google Books Library Project, the US Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit confirmed that the scanning activities of Google within its Library Project are to be considered a fair google-books-featured1-500x236use of copyright works under §107 of the US Copyright Act (full text here). The Litigation was brought against Google by the Association of American Publishers (AAP) and the Authors’ Guild, on behalf of authors whose books Google had digitized without permission, claiming that Google’s digital copying ofentire books, allowing users through the snippet function to read portions, would infringe author’s copyrights, providing consumers with a substitute for the original works.

In 2012, the AAP and Google concluded a settlement agreement, but this did not arrest the ongoing litigation between the Authors’ Guild and Google.

Judge Pierre N. Leval held among other things that Google’s making of a digital copy to provide a search function is a “highly transformative use”, with the meaning set forth in Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc. (510 U.S. 569, U.S. 1994) to “add something new, with a further purpose or different character, altering the first with new expression, meaning, or message”.

In particular, the court said that Google’s book search function was transformative because it “augments public knowledge by making available information about the plaintiffs’ books without providing the public with a substantial substitute for matter protected by the plaintiffs’ copyright interests in the original works or derivatives of them”. Even if the snippet reveals some copyright–protected authorial expressions, the brevity and the cumbersome, disjointed and incomplete nature of the snippets just helps users to evaluate whether books falls within the scope of their interest, but does not allow to make them a competing substitute for the original.
A unanimous three-judge panel rejected the Author’s Guild’s argument that Google’s distribution of the digital copies to libraries exposed the books to risks of loss. On the contrary, the court said that Google Books did not have a strong effect on the potential market for the books and that any losses would eventually address interests unrelated to copyright.
If the decision will be upheld by the Supreme Court, it will predictably become a landmark ruling in copyright law. Its long term effects could be relevant. In addition to the public benefits of Google Books, which expands access to books and allows scholars to analyse huge amount of data, the decision might open the door for creating similar types of digitization projects involving copyrighted works. In this regard, it will be interesting to carefully follow if and how the decision will travel outside the United States, especially in those legal systems which does not have a fair use clause.

Predictably, in any case, the decision will not meet with unanimous praise. The decision proposes an extensive application of the transformative use doctrine, which could be interpreted as a lack of consistency concerning how the degree of transformativeness is to be assessed. This point could be matter for further guidance by the Supreme Court.

In the meantime, while Google heaved a sigh of relief, the next candidate is already on the horizon. It is the online trading platform Amazon, subject to both antitrust investigations and further calls for regulation. But this is another story…

Jacopo Ciani

The Court of Turin rules about authorship in copyright: toward protection of advertising ideas through moral rights?

A recent interim decision of the Court of Turin (full Italian text here) in a copyright dispute faced an interesting issue concerning the concept and scope of right to co-authorship, hence also a moral right pursuant to art. 20 of Italian Copyright law (Law No. 633/1941).

In a nutshell, Mr. Pagani, a former employee of the advertising company Leo Burnet, claimed to be the author of the “creative idea” from which Fiat advertisement “Fiat 500 cult yacht” (which was awarded, among others, the Cannes Lion 2014 at the International Festival of Creativity) was produced. He expressed this idea in a script exposed during a meeting at Leo Burnet. The proposal was discarded by Fiat. Four years later the script was revived and elaborated by two other employees of Leo Burnet to produce the advert Fiat 500 cult yacht. Credits on the advert were then attributed to these two employees.

Taking aside the question whether scripts may be autonomously protected as creative works, the Court of Turin considered that (i) advertisements can be the subject of copyright protection, as works characterized by innovative ideas or new form of expression of previous ideas; (ii) a video advert is a complex work, which includes visual and audio elements; (iii) conception of the advert is a crucial phase within the creative process: the project of the advert constitutes the “synthesis” to be developed during the production of the video; (iv) Mr. Pagani’s script (as mean of expression of the advert idea) included all the main elements that characterize the final advert: the promotional message, its way of expression (i.e., the particular environment, the narrator’s voice, the final advertising claim) and the targeted public.

In light of the above, Mr. Pagani’s script expressed more than a mere idea and contributed decisively to the final advert. Thus, the Court ordered to rectify the credits of the advert including Mr. Pagani among the authors and to notify the interested parties.

This decision is far from granting copyright protection to mere ideas, since protection of Mr. Pagani’s idea was conditioned to (i) the expression on a physical medium (i.e., the script) and (ii) the presence of all the main expressive elements of the final advert. However, it confirms a flexible view in acknowledging (co)authorship to creative contributions of a work (on a similar ground, see Court of Milan 21 October 2003, which considered co-author the scriptwriter who conceived the characters of a comic).

Francesco Banterle

 Court of Turin, 31 March 2015, Riccardo Pagani v. Leo Burnett Company S.r.l.

ECJ: the Owner of an Online Database not Protected by Copyright or Sui Generis Right May Limit its Use by Contract

On January 15, 2015 the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ), in Ryanair Ltd v PR Aviation BV, C-30/14, handed down a decision concerning the interpretation of Directive 96/9/EC on the legal protection of databases (full text here). The case concerned the unauthorized extraction of flight data (so called ‘screen scraping’) from Ryanair’s website by the PR Aviation, which operates a price comparison website where users can also book a flight on payment of commissions. Access to Ryanair’s website requires acceptance of the air company’s T&Cs, by ticking a box, which prohibit unauthorized ‘screen scraping’ practices.

Ryanair brought proceedings against PR Aviation before Dutch courts for infringement of copyright and sui generis right on its database as well as breach of contract. Upon preliminary ruling requested by the Dutch Supreme Court, the ECJ ruled that the Directive 96/9/EC is not applicable to databases which are not protected either by copyright or by the so-called sui generis database right granted to the maker of the database (whether Ryanair’s website may be entitled to such protection shall be determined by the competent national court).

Therefore, according to the ECJ, mandatory exceptions to restricted acts laid down by Articles 6 and 8 of the Directive (allowing the ‘lawful user’ of the same to use the protected database without the author’s or maker’s consent, in certain cases and if certain conditions are met) do not prevent the database owner from laying down contractual limitations on its use by third parties, while the same contractual limitations are null and void vis-à-vis lawful users of those databases which benefit from copyright and/or sui generis right protections.

While the interpretative principle outlined by the ECJ is actually not very striking (insofar as it is rather clear from the literal text of the Database Directive that the legal regime implemented by it – including the mandatory rights of ‘lawful users’ – only apply to those databases which can be protected with copyright or the sui generis right), it is important to highlight that, according to general principles of contract law, any contractual provisions governing the use of unprotected databases may only be binding on third parties who accepted those provisions (and that, accordingly, should be deemed to be already aware of their content) and, conversely, cannot bind any third parties extraneous to the contractual relationship with the website owner. In the Ryanair case discussed above, the ECJ makes clear that the company that had ‘scraped’ Ryanair’s flight data without authorization had previously accepted Ryanair’s general T&Cs by ticking a box to that effect. What about if ones were to take the disputed flight data not from Ryanair’s website but from the price comparison’s website? In this scenario, Ryanair’s T&Cs, notably the ‘screen scraping’ prohibition, should not be deemed to apply.

Federica De Santis

Court of Justice, 15 January 2015, C-30/, Ryanair Ltd v PR Aviation BV, C-30/14