The Bucharest Court of Appeal and the Regional Court of Düsseldorf have recently issued two decisions concerning the enforcement of standard essential patents (SEPs) in the telecommunication industry. The decisions (which have been made available by Comparative Patent Remedies: see here and here, also for their English translation) are particularly interesting in that they apply the framework depicted by the CJEU in the Huawei v. ZTE case (C-170/13, full text here) with regard to the availability of injunctive relief for SEPs encumbered by FRAND (Fair, Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory) commitments. As is well known, according to the Huawei v. ZTE decision, a SEP holder, before asking an injunction against an alleged infringer, must present him a specific and detailed FRAND license offer (Huawei v. ZTE, par. 63). In the absence of such a FRAND license offer, seeking an injunction may amount to an abuse of dominant position under Art 102 TFEU (Huawei v. ZTE, par. 77). But what if the infringer does not respond to the SEP holder’s offer? Is the FRAND-compliance of the SEP holder’s offer still to be verified, in order for the injunction to be granted?
The Romanian case
In 2014, Vringo, Inc., an Israeli non-practicing entity (NPE), obtained from the Tribunal of Bucharest a preliminary injunction against ZTE Romania on the basis of a patent essential to the 4G/LTE standard. The decision was upheld by the Bucharest Court of Appeal. In particular, in the case at stake, Vringo had offered a license to ZTE Romania and ZTE Romania did not respond to the offer.
Later on, ZTE Romania filed a motion to have the above preliminary injunction lifted on the grounds of its alleged inconsistency with the Huawei v. ZTE framework. However, both the Tribunal and the Court of Appeal of Bucharest dismissed the petition. In particular, by decision of 28 October 2015, the Court of Appeal stated that, precisely in the light of Huawei v. ZTE, when the alleged infringer does not respond to the SEP holder’s offer (but the same applies to the case of a non-FRAND counter-offer), the SEP holder cannot be deemed to be abusing its dominant position. It seems from the line of reasoning of the decision that the Bucharest Court did not verify the FRAND-compliance of Vringo’s offer, and deemed it sufficient that ZTE Romania failed to present a FRAND counter-offer for an injunction to be granted.
The German case
The approach of German Courts is different. In an order of 13 January 2016, the Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf held that the alleged infringer is not required to propose a FRAND counter-offer if the one it received is not FRAND-compliant. In other words, the Court has, first of all, to verify whether the patent owner’s offer is FRAND. Only if this condition is met, it will check if the counter-offer is FRAND-compliant too. Therefore, the alleged infringer who receives a non-FRAND offer and does not respond cannot be subject to an injunction under the Huawei framework and, if sued before a Court, he can simply object that its counterparty did not respect the FRAND “etiquette” provided by the CJEU. Obviously, the patent holder would still have the chance to prove before the Court that its offer was actually compliant to FRAND terms and conditions, and to obtain an injunction.
The same approach was recently adopted by the Regional Court of Düsseldorf too, in its decision of 31 March 2016 (English translation of the relevant excerpts made available by Comparative Patent Remedies blog here). In this case, concerning a patent essential to the AMR-WB standard for 3G communications, the Court specifically assessed the FRAND nature of the patent holder’s offer, although it was undisputed that the alleged infringer had not proposed a counter-offer.
The German approach seems to be preferable. Since, under the Huawei v. ZTE framework, a FRAND-compliant offer by the patent holder is mandatory, Court should not issue injunctions without a prior assessment of the FRAND nature of the patent holders’ offers. Should this assessment be omitted, the burden of estimating a fair offer would shift from the patent holder – the only one who has the very instruments to calculate a fair royalty rate according to “comparable licensing agreements” – to the alleged infringer. So that, in order to avoid an injunction, the alleged infringer will most likely present a very high counter-offer. This seems to stifle the pro-competitive effects of the Huawei v. ZTE framework.